Die aktuellen Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen in der Ostukraine finden im Rahmen des Joint Centre for Control and Co-ordination (JCCC) statt. Grundlage für die Verhandlungen sind das Minsker Protokoll vom 5. September 2014 (siehe Ukraine-Analysen Nr. 136) und das Minsker Memorandum vom 19. September 2014 (siehe Ukraine-Analysen Nr. 137). Zusätzlich wurden Anfang Dezember Planungen für ein erneutes Treffen im Rahmen der Minsker Friedensverhandlungen begonnen.
Das JCCC ist im Zuge der Minsker Friedensverhandlungen für die Ostukraine geschaffen worden und soll »den bilateralen Dialog zwischen dem ukrainischen Verteidigungsministerium und militärischen Vertretern der Russischen Föderation erleichtern«. (<http://uacrisis.org/osce-mission/>) Das JCCC hat sein Hauptquartier in Debalzewe (nordöstlich von Donezk an der Grenze zum Separatistengebiet). Die Konfliktlinie in der Ostukraine ist in vier Sektoren eingeteilt worden, für die jeweils ein JCCC Team zuständig ist.
Die Verantwortung für das JCCC liegt allein bei den beteiligten Vertretern der Ukraine und Russlands. Die OSZE Mission in der Ostukraine stellt organisatorische Unterstützung zu Verfügung und berichtet über die Arbeit des JCCC.
Wir dokumentieren im Folgenden die Berichte der OSZE Beobachtermission (Special Monitoring Mission – SMM) über die Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen in der Ostukraine sowie die Planung für ein neues Treffen im Rahmen der Minsker Friedensverhandlungen.
Die Redaktion der Ukraine-Analysen
Berichte der OSZE Beobachtermission (Special Monitoring Mission – SMM)
13 November 2014
The SMM met the Ukrainian and Russian heads of the JCCC, who said that the two of them had agreed a draft schedule for gradual disengagement. The draft document, which they signed at the end of the meeting, proposed three phases: a ceasefire (two days); withdrawal of heavy weapons (five days); and disengagement of forces to the line of contact referred to in the Minsk Memorandum (21 days). Earlier that day they had started to discuss the plan with members of the “Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR)”. The SMM encouraged the heads of the JCCC to jointly communicate their activities, plans and achievements to the general public.
30 November 2014
On 29 November, in Luhansk, the SMM was present at a meeting of the head of the Ukrainian contingent to the Joint Centre for Control and Co-ordination (JCCC), Lt Gen Askarov; the head of the Russian Representation in south-east Ukraine, Lt Gen Lentsov; and members of the “LPR”. Participants continued to dispute aspects of the disengagement phase of the Generals’ plan of 13 November. Nonetheless, all agreed in principle to a total ceasefire along the entire line of contact between Ukrainian Armed Forces and those under control of the “LPR”, to be effective from 5 December. Members of the “LPR” insisted that they were in control of all Cossack units and that these units, too, would adhere to this proposal. They also agreed that the withdrawal of heavy weapons would start on 6 December.
2 December 2014
In “Donetsk People’s Republic” (“DPR”)-controlled Donetsk, the SMM attended a meeting of the head of the Ukrainian side of the JCCC, Lieutenant General Askarov, the head of the Russian Representation to south-east Ukraine, Lieutenant General Lentsov and “DPR” members. Participants discussed options for the implementation of a durable ceasefire, in particular at government-controlled Donetsk airport.
At the JCCC headquarters in government-controlled Debaltseve (55km north-east of Donetsk), the chief of staff of the Russian Representation told the SMM that it had deployed a group of Russian officers to Donetsk and would deploy another group to “Lugansk People’s Republic” (“LPR”)-controlled Luhansk on 3 December. The chief of staff of the Ukrainian side said that Ukrainian officers would join the Russian officers within the next few days.
3 December 2014
At the JCCC HQ in government-controlled Debaltseve (55km North-East of Donetsk), the Ukrainian and Russian Federation Chiefs of Staff (CoS) stated that, as a result of a meeting held in “DPR”-controlled Donetsk on 2 December (between Ukrainian Lt-Gen. Askarov and Russian Federation Lt-Gen. Lentsov), hostilities at Donetsk airport had ceased as of 17:45hrs on 2 December. The SMM noted, however, the continuation of intermittent shelling in and around the airport on the evening of 2 December and throughout 3 December. The chiefs also said that JCCC offices in Donetsk and “Lugansk People’s Republic” (“LPR”)-controlled Luhansk cities would henceforth co-ordinate the work of JCCC command posts located in “DPR” and “LPR”-controlled territory, a task which had thus far been undertaken directly by the JCCC HQ in Debaltseve. The JCCC HQ would remain in Debaltseve, they said. Each new office would be staffed by three officers from the Russian Federation, and two Ukrainian officers.
In Luhansk the SMM monitored a meeting of the JCCC involving Lt-Generals Askarov and Lentsov and an “LPR” member, at which concrete proposals and modalities on enforcing a stable ceasefire along the line of contact between “LPR” and government forces were discussed. In “LPR”-controlled Alchevsk (43km West of Luhansk), the SMM met a prominent local “LPR” commander who cast doubts on the efficacy of a ceasefire, saying his objective was to control the entire Luhansk region.
4 December 2014
Ukrainian and Russian Federation representatives of the Joint Centre for Control Co-ordination (JCCC) in Debaltseve reported that the number of ceasefire violations had significantly increased over the last 24 hours, reaching 110 incidents, registered in both Ukrainian and Russian Federation incident logs. Both sides confirmed that a ceasefire for Donetsk airport did not hold and hostilities renewed at 08:00hrs on 3 December.
5 December 2014
The SMM monitored the JCCC HQ in government-controlled Debaltseve (55 km north-east of Donetsk), where Ukrainian Armed Forces Lt-Gen. Askarov and three officers of the General Staff of Ukraine were working alongside four Russian officers of the General Staff of Russia. Members of the so-called “Donetsk People’s Republic” (“DPR”) and “LPR” were also present and primarily co-operating and sharing information with Russian JCCC officers. The JCCC Chief of Staff of the Russian Representation in south-east Ukraine informed the SMM that the head of the Russian Representation in south-east Ukraine, Lt-Gen. Lentsov, was in Luhansk for consultations with members of the “LPR”.
7 December 2014
On 7 December, the SMM returned to the JCCC in Debaltseve. Lieutenant General Askarov and Lieutenant General Lentsov said that there had been an agreement on the terms of a ceasefire which according to them is planned to enter into force on 9 December at 09:00 hrs. The incident logs of the Ukrainian and of the Russian Federation JCCC representatives showed a total of 174 breaches of the non-use of weapons in the past 24 hours. During the visit, the SMM heard small arms fire in the distance, to the south of Debaltseve.
8 December 2014
The SMM continued to monitor the activity of the Joint Centre for Control and Co-ordination (JCCC). At their headquarters in Debaltseve (55 km north-east of Donetsk), officers of the Ukrainian and Russian General Staffs were working with members of the “Lugansk People’s Republic” (“LPR”) and the “DPR”. […]Those present at the headquarters told the SMM that they had prepared orders for the implementation of a ceasefire, to start at 09:00 on 9 December, in accordance with an amended version of the plan of 13 November, signed by: the head of the Ukrainian side of the JCCC, Lt Gen Volodymyr Askarov; the head of the Russian Representation in south-east Ukraine, Lt Gen Aleksandr Lentsov; Denis Pushilin, on behalf of the “Donetsk city administration”; and “LPR” member A. Shubin.
The SMM continued to monitor the activity of the JCCC. In the headquarters in Debaltseve (55 km north-east of Donetsk), the head of the Ukrainian side of the JCCC, Lt Gen Volodymyr Askarov, and the head of the Russian Representation to south-east Ukraine, Lt Gen Aleksandr Lentsov, were overseeing the work of officers of the Ukrainian and Russian General Staffs, and members of the “Donetsk People’s Republic” (“DPR”) and “Lugansk People’s Republic” (“LPR”), instructing them to follow up on reported ceasefire violations. Ukrainian and Russian officers received eight reports of ceasefire violations between 9:00 hrs and 11:00 hrs.
The Ukrainian and Russian chiefs of staff said that the new JCCC offices in Luhansk and Donetsk cities were fully operational and that, following oral assurances of their security from members of the “LPR” and “DPR”, Ukrainian officers had joined Russian officers there.
In Svitlodarsk (55km north-east of Donetsk) and Soledar (77 km north of Donetsk), Ukrainian and Russian officers spoke to the SMM about the prospects for a sustainable ceasefire. The officers said they hoped that a 48-hour ceasefire would be achieved.
Pressebüro des ukrainischen Präsidenten (06.12.2014 16:43)
President: Meeting of the Trilateral contact group is planned for December 9 in Minsk
The meeting of the Trilateral contact group on the resolution of the situation in the Donbas is planned for December 9 in Minsk. The representatives of Ukraine, Russia and the OSCE are to take part in the meeting. It was stated by President Petro Poroshenko in Chuhuiv, Kharkiv region.
“There is a preliminary agreement that the meeting will be held in Minsk on December 9,” the Head of State noted. According to him, Ukraine expects the schedule of the Minsk agreements’ implementation to be approved following the meeting. “December 9 must become the day of artillery silence. In 30 days, we must get to the collision line stipulated in the Minsk protocol,” the President emphasized.
The Head of State stressed that along with that, the withdrawal of heavy armament and the OSCE monitoring of the ceasefire had to be ensured. Also, Petro Poroshenko emphasizes that pseudo-elections of November 2 must be abolished and the organization of local elections under the Ukrainian legislation must begin.
“There is a cautious optimism regarding the meeting planned for December 9,” the President concluded.
Pressezentrum von Regierung und Volksrat der Donezker Volksrepublik (8.12.2014)
[inoffizielle Übersetzung durch die Ukraine-Analysen]
Das Minsker Treffen wird stattfinden nach der Bestätigung aller Punkte der Tagesordnung durch Kiew
Wie die Donezker Nachrichtenagentur bestätigt, wird eine neue Runde von Verhandlungen im Minsker Format in dieser Woche stattfinden, sobald Kiew alle Punkte der Tagesordnung bestätigt hat, erklärte heute der Vertreter der DNR [Donezker Volksrepublik] in der Kontaktgruppe [welche die Friedensverhandlungen in Minsk führt], der stellvertretende Vorsitzende des Volksrates Denis Puschilin.
»Die Verhandlungen im Minsker Format finden diese Woche statt, sobald die Ukraine die Tagesordnung bestätigt, deren Entwurf derzeit diskutiert wird«, erklärte Puschilin. »Im einzelnen: a) Feuerpause und Abzug von Artillerie und Raketenwerfern; b) Gefangenenaustausch entsprechend den vereinbarten Listen; c) schrittweise Aufhebung der ukrainischen Wirtschaftsblockade des Donbass; d) Umsetzung des Gesetzes der Ukraine »Über den besonderen Status des Donbass« sowie des Amnestiegesetzes. Nach Angaben des Vertreters der DNR formuliert die ukrainische Seite keine klare Position zu den Punkten C und D. »Vielleicht wollen sie konkrete Entscheidungen vermeiden, um die Volksrepubliken wirtschaftlich zu ersticken und auf diese Weise den erforderlichen Dialog mit unserem Volk vermeiden«, erläuterte Puschilin. »Wir werden darauf bestehen, dass Kiew klare Antworten auf unsere Fragen gibt.«