Auszüge aus der Rede von Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel (07.02.2015)
Russland bricht Völkerrecht
(…) »[S]eit mehr als einem Jahr erleben wir nun in der Ukraine-Krise, dass die Grundlagen der europäischen Friedensordnung keineswegs selbstverständlich sind. Denn Russlands Vorgehen – erst auf der Krim, dann in der Ostukraine – hat diese Grundlagen unseres Zusammenlebens in Europa verletzt. Die territoriale Integrität der Ukraine wird ebenso missachtet wie ihre staatliche Souveränität. Das Völkerrecht wird gebrochen. (…)
Russlands Vorgehen steht im Widersprich zu den Verpflichtungen etwa aus der KSZE-Schlussakte oder – und das vor allen Dingen – dem Budapester Memorandum, in dem damals versichert wurde – durch die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika, Großbritannien und Russland –, dass die territoriale Integrität der Ukraine geschützt wird und die Ukraine in der Folge ihre nukleare Bewaffnung aufzugeben hat.
Gerade wenn ich mich an bestimmte Gespräche auch hier am Rande dieser Sicherheitskonferenz erinnere: Wer wird seine nukleare Kapazität aufgeben, wenn wir nicht sicherstellen können, dass territoriale Integrität akzeptiert wird? Deshalb macht die Europäische Union gemeinsam mit ihren transatlantischen Partnern deutlich, dass eine Politik, die auf eine gewaltsame Veränderung der Grenzen in Europa abzielt, im 21. Jahrhundert keinen Platz haben darf. Wir machen deutlich, dass internationales Recht eingehalten werden muss. Niemand von uns hat ein Interesse an einer neuen Spaltung in Europa und schon gar nicht an einer Konfrontation mit dem Risiko unkontrollierbarer Eskalation.«
… aber »Sicherheit in Europa gemeinsam mit Russland«
»Wir wollen Sicherheit in Europa gemeinsam mit Russland gestalten, nicht gegen Russland. Das gilt für die europäische und die transatlantische Sicherheitsordnung. Das gilt auch für die Bewältigung gemeinsamer internationaler Herausforderungen – von der Verbreitung von Massenvernichtungswaffen bis hin zur Bekämpfung des internationalen Terrorismus. Die E3+3-Verhandlungen zur Lösung des Nuklearkonflikts mit dem Iran und die Beseitigung syrischer Chemiewaffen belegen, dass trotz aller Krisen eine Zusammenarbeit mit Russland bei wichtigen Themen gelingen kann.
Diese Beispiele zeigen übrigens auch, dass die internationale Ordnung positive Wirkung entfalten kann. Das setzt allerdings den Willen aller Beteiligten voraus, in Grundprinzipien dieser Ordnung immer eindeutig zu sein, an diesen Grundprinzipien festzuhalten und sich an der Umsetzung messen zu lassen. Dazu muss Russland auch in der Ukraine-Krise seinen Beitrag leisten. Militärisch ist diese Krise nicht zu lösen.«
Krisengespräche mit Russland sind Versuch wert
»Deshalb gilt es jetzt mehr denn je, substantielle Schritte festzulegen, die dazu dienen, das Minsker Abkommen mit Leben zu füllen. Diesem Ziel dienen auch unsere Gespräche; auch die gegenwärtigen in Kiew und Moskau. Ich freue mich, dass Präsident Poroschenko an dieser Sicherheitskonferenz teilnimmt. Ich sage aber – auch nach den Gesprächen gestern in Moskau, die der französische Präsident und ich geführt haben: Es ist ungewiss, ob sie Erfolg haben. Aber es ist aus meiner Sicht und auch der Sicht des französischen Präsidenten auf jeden Fall wert, diesen Versuch zu wagen. Ich glaube, wir schulden es schon allein den betroffenen Menschen in der Ukraine.«
Freihandelsabkommen zwischen EU und Eurasischer Union erst nach Lösung der Ukraine-Krise auf der Grundlage des Völkerrechts
(…) »Auch wir sind sehr daran interessiert, dem langfristigen Ziel eines gemeinsamen Wirtschaftsraums von Wladiwostok über Lissabon bis Vancouver näher zu kommen. Ich unterstütze dazu notwendige Gespräche auch zwischen der EU-Kommission und der Eurasischen Union. Aber ich ergänze: Voraussetzung für solche Gespräche und erst recht für den Erfolg ist natürlich die Überwindung der Ukraine-Krise auf der Grundlage des internationalen Rechts.«
Auszüge aus der Rede des Präsidenten der Ukraine Petro Poroschenko (07.02.2015)
Russland führt Krieg gegen die Ukraine
(…) “Our neighbor has breached international law and annexed a part of our territory.
Today, a formerly strategic partner is waging a hybrid war against a sovereign state, a co-founder of the United Nations.
Mounds of lies and propaganda have been heaped into a wall of hatred, erected between two once friendly nations.
The border routes, once used for transporting goods and exchange of visitors and friends, are now swarming with Russian tanks, armed personnel carriers, artillery, multiple-rocket-launchers and ammunition.
How many evidences does the world still need to recognize an obvious fact – there is a foreign military equipment, mercenaries, Russian military coaches and regular troops.”
Humanitäre Lage in der Ukraine wird immer schlimmer
“This last year has become a spiraling tragedy for my nation.
The death toll of the Ukrainian soldiers defending their land from aggressor is constantly rising.
Here there is the passports and documents of Russian soldiers and officers who came to us and “got lost” their way. This is the best evidence of the presence of Russian troops which killing Ukrainian soldiers and Ukrainian civilians.
Thousands of people have been killed since last April.
More than ten thousands wounded.
Hundreds and thousands of civilians have become innocent victims of terrorists financed, trained and equipped by Russia.
298 innocent victims of the downed MH17 flight; 16 killed in a bus shelled in Volnovakha, 8 dead in a trolleybus shelled in Donetsk; 31 civilian casualties of Mariupol shelling by Russian-provided rockets.
The children of Debaltseve will never be able to get rid of the memories of the nights they spent in freezing basements hiding from the explosions and the blasts.
One million internally displaced persons have escaped the horrors of the war. But the trauma they have suffered will never be healed.
I would like to thank our international partners for their humanitarian support helping these people to start life from a new slate.
Nadia Savchenko has spent 237 days in a Russian prison and is now slowly dying in the 57th day of a hunger strike against her illegal abduction and imprisonment.
This is all highly reminiscent of the Soviet repressive machine now applied to break the courage of a Ukrainian woman – an officer of the Ukrainian Air Force.
We say “free Nadiya”, but we mean that every single Ukrainian, who was captured and tortured just for defending their land must be released.
The war exhausts Ukraine daily affecting the lives of its citizens. We have lost 20 percent of our industrial output. 10 percent of industrial infrastructure is in ruins.
The fighting in Donbas threatens a technological disaster on a global scale. One of the biggest nuclear power plants in Europe, Energodar, is just 280 kilometers from Mariupol.”
Die Ukraine setzt auf Dialog und bilateralen Waffenstillstand
“The aggression against Ukraine has opened a Pandora’s Box for the international security.
It must be clear that there are no temporary solutions. This conflict must be resolved, not frozen. (…)
Today Ukraine has to fight for its independence and its freedom. We must defend our land.
But from the very beginning Ukraine has been committed to peace and has remained coherent and consistent on the peace process.
As a President of Peace, I presented my Plan. Its logic is laid down in the Minsk Protocol signed on the September 5, 2014 by representatives of Ukraine, Russia, the OSCE and the separatists.
These are very concrete steps to restore peace and facilitate the political dialogue.
We immediately declared the ceasefire and signed the Memorandum on the line of disengagement and withdrawal of heavy weaponry on September 19, 2014.
We were ready to hold a political dialogue with those parties who are credible to represent Donbas based on the democratic approach – elections.
The Ukrainian Parliament passed the Law to provide wider authority to regional, municipal and local authorities of parts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions, and it passed the Law on Amnesty.
We will never recognize fake elections held by separatists on their controlled territories on November 2 under the barrels of machine guns.
I would like to stress that a non-military and diplomatic solution remains the only remedy to this situation. And I would like to reiterate that the Minsk Protocol and the Minsk Memorandum are still on the table.
We want to stop the bloodshed and are ready for an immediate – but bilateral – ceasefire, to be monitored and verified by the OSCE.
We urge the withdrawal of weaponry, the closing of the border, and the release of all hostages, including Nadia Savchenko.
Once there is no threat of an offensive operation, we stand ready to hold local elections in Donbas under Ukrainian legislation and the observation of the OSCE/ODIHR.
We are committed to continuing the further political dialogue with the democratically elected representatives.
We have started Constitutional reform with the aim of continuing the decentralization process and yielding wider administrative, financial and cultural authorities to the regions.
We are stripping our members of parliament and judges of immunity and are conducting rigid anti-corruption reforms.
These efforts are parts of a comprehensive process to restore the confidence of the Ukrainian people in their institutions and make the world believe in Ukraine.
I am very grateful to Chancellor Merkel and President Hollande for coming to Kyiv on Thursday to intensify our efforts at resuming peace.
We truly hope that these proposals stemming from the Minsk agreements will resonate in the efforts of Russia, whose commitment to peace is enshrined in the Minsk agreements.”
Aufruf zu Waffenlieferungen an die Ukraine
(…) “Ukraine greatly needs defensive military support to ensure the ceasefire and contain the aggression.
I know many experts have argued that enhancing us militarily would provoke further aggression. On the contrary, we have seen that the lack of defense capabilities triggers offensive operation against Ukraine and spins the escalation.
Over the course of the conflict we have proven to be responsible and that we will not use the defensive equipment to attack.
The stronger is our defense – the more convincing is our diplomatic voice.”
Nichteinhaltung des Budapester Memorandums stellt weltweite nukleare Abrüstung in Frage
(…) “As we approach the 2015, Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Treaty Review Conference is to be held in New York this May. Let me also dwell on another important aspect of the current international security environment.
It is related to one of the consequences of the Ukrainian crisis, which I would call “a broken promise on Ukraine”.
I mean Russia’s clear violation of the 1994 Budapest memorandum, in which, together with the UK and the US, it pledged to respect my country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity in return for Ukraine joining the NPT and giving up nuclear weapons. It has already created a profound challenge for the existing international non-proliferation regime.
Russian aggression undermines the value and credibility of negative security assurances issued by any nuclear-weapon-state.
The whole process of non-proliferation is put under question, when non-nuclear-weapon-states feel safe no more while dealing with nuclear ones.
In this regard, we need to design new mechanisms to reinforce the sanctity of international law, the primary bastion of many states who lack other means of protection.”
Internationale Gemeinschaft braucht Instrumente gegen Propaganda und hybride Kriegsführung
“Another field to draw attention to is a lack of legal responsibility under the international law for cynical and aggressive propaganda used to encourage and incite ethnic, racial or religious hatred.
For just a year the number of Russian citizens who were thinking bad or very bad about Ukraine has grown from 26 to 59 per cent.
We have to create legal international tools and mechanisms to counteract propaganda, to make the countries to behave responsibly and to maintain the principle of non-intervention into internal affairs of another state.
For over a year Ukraine has been facing dramatic consequences of an undeclared hybrid warfare. It is very important that the states in the region devote more attention to hybrid threats.
We need a clear strategic concept with a wide-range of response instruments to tackle this complex problem and to enhance the responsibility for applying hybrid war tactics.” (…)
Quelle: Press office of President, <http://president.gov.ua/en/news/32203.html>
Auszüge aus der Rede des russischen Außenministers Sergey Lawrow (07.02.2015)
Globale Stabilitätsstruktur wurde nicht erst jetzt, sondern schon viel früher durch den Westen untergraben
(…) “Mr Wolfgang Ischinger has included the issue of the collapse of global development on the agenda. One has to agree that events have taken a turn, which is far from optimistic. But it is impossible to agree with the arguments of some of our colleagues that there was a sudden and rapid collapse of the world order that had existed for decades.
To the contrary, the last year’s developments confirmed the correctness of our warnings against profound, systemic problems in the organisation of European security and international relations in general. I would like to remind you of the speech delivered by Russian President Vladimir Putin from these stands eight years ago.
The structure of stability, based on the UN Charter and the Helsinki principles, has long been undermined by actions of the Unites States and its allies in Yugoslavia, which was bombed, as well as in Iraq and Libya, NATO’s expansion to the east and the creation of new lines of separation. The project of building a “common European home” failed because our western partners were guided by illusions and beliefs of winners in the Cold War rather than the interests of building an open security architecture with mutual respect of interests. The obligations, solemnly undertaken as part of the OSCE and the Russia–NATO Council, not to ensure one’s own safety at the expense of others’ remained on paper and were ignored on practice.”
USA und EU begünstigen mit ihrer Politik die Eskalation der Situation in der Ukraine
(…) “As for Ukraine itself, unfortunately, at each stage of the crisis’ development, our American colleagues, and under their influence, also the European Union, have been taking steps leading to escalation. This happened when the EU declined to involve Russia in the discussion of the consequences of implementing the economic block of the Association Agreement with Ukraine, which was followed by direct support of a coup d’etat, and anti-government riots prior to that. This also happened when our western partners kept issuing indulgences to the Kiev authorities, who, rather than keeping their promise to launch nation-wide dialogue, began a large-scale military operation and labelled “terrorists” all those citizens who defied the unconstitutional change of power and the rule of ultranationalists.”
Westliche Partner Russlands ignorieren Rechtsradikalismus in der Ukraine
“It is very hard for us to explain why many of our colleagues fail to apply to Ukraine the universal principles of settling internal conflicts which presuppose, above all, an inclusive political dialogue between the protagonists. Why do our partners in the cases of Afghanistan, Libya, Iraq, Yemen, Mali and South Sudan, for instance, urge the governments to talk with opposition, with rebels, in some cases even with extremists, whereas in the Ukrainian crisis, our partners act differently, in fact, encouraging Kiev’s military operation, going so far as to justify or attempt to justify the use of cluster munitions.
Regretfully, our western colleagues are apt to close their eyes to everything that is said and done by the Kiev authorities, including fanning xenophobic attitudes. Let me quote: “Ukrainian social-nationalism regards the Ukrainian nation as a blood-race community.” Which is followed by: “The issue of total Ukrainisation in the future social-nationalist state will be resolved within three to six months by a tough and balanced state policy.” The author of those words is Andrey Biletsky, the commander of the Azov regiment, which is actively engaged in the military activities in Donbass. Some other activists who gained a position in politics and power, including Dmitry Yarosh, Oleg Tyagnibok and the leader of the Radical Party in the Verkhovna Rada Oleg Lyashko, publicly called a number of times for an ethnically clean Ukraine, for the extermination of Russians and Jews. Those statements failed to evoke any reaction in the western capitals. I don’t think present-day Europe can afford to neglect the danger of the spread of the neo-Nazi virus.”
Russland ist für den Frieden und gegen Waffenlieferungen an die Ukraine durch westliche Staaten
“The Ukrainian crisis cannot be settled by military force. This was confirmed last summer when the situation on the battlefield forced the participants to sign the Minsk Accords. It is being confirmed now as well, when the next attempt to gain a military victory is failing. Yet regardless of all that, more loud calls are being made in some western countries to step up support of the Kiev authorities’ vector towards militarisation of society and the state, to “infuse” Ukraine with lethal weapons, to drag it into NATO. There is hope in the increased opposition in Europe to such plans, which can only make the tragedy of the Ukrainian people worse.
Russia will continue strive for establishing peace. We are consistently calling for the cessation of military activities, the withdrawal of heavy weapons and the start of direct talks between Kiev and Donetsk and Lugansk on practical steps to restore the common economic, social and political space within the territorial integrity of Ukraine. Numerous initiatives by President Putin were dedicated to exactly that within the Normandy format, which helped launch the Minsk process, and our further efforts on its expansion, including yesterday’s talks in the Kremlin between the Russian, German and French leaders. As you know, these talks are ongoing. We believe that there is every possibility we will reach results and agree on recommendations that will really allow the parties to untie the knot of this conflict.”
Auszüge aus der Rede des US-Vizepräsidenten Joe Biden (07.02.2015)
Grundprinzipien Europas – Unverletzbarkeit von Grenzen, kein Kampf um Einflusssphären, das souveräne Recht, Allianzen selbst zu wählen – sind bedroht
(…) “America and Europe are being tested. President Putin has to understand that, as he has changed, so has our focus. We have moved from resetting this important relationship to reasserting the fundamental bedrock principles on which European freedom and stability rest. And I’ll say it again: inviolate borders, no spheres of influence, the sovereign right to choose your own alliances. I cannot repeat that often enough.
And again, as the Chancellor said this morning, to protect these important principles, we have to be laser-focused on the greater threats to the project of a Europe whole, free, and at peace.
And for a moment I’d like to focus on three of these threats. First, the attempt to undermine Ukrainian sovereignty; second, the use of corruption as an instrument to try to undermine governments; and, third, the use of energy as a tool of coercion.
Most immediately, we need to remain resolute and united in our support of Ukraine, as the Chancellor said this morning. What happens there will resonate well beyond Ukraine. It matters to all—not just in Europe, but around the world—all who may be subject to aggression; to all countries who expect Russia to honor the agreements they signed, whether at the United Nations, Budapest Memorandum, or even the Minsk Agreement.”
Russlands Versuche, die Ukraine vom Weg zur Demokratie abzubringen, sind gescheitert
“Together, we agreed that countries would never again be able to redraw the map of Europe by force. That’s what we said. That’s what all of you said. That’s what we said. I’ve traveled to Ukraine many times—three times in the past year. I’ve sat down with the men and women who braved the snipers’ bullets in Maidan, as many of you did. Their courage has given Ukraine a chance to leave behind its history and recent history of corruption and finally build a genuine democracy, which has not existed for as long as memory—not in name, but in reality; an economy no longer riddled with corruption, oligarchs above the law.
It’s not easy. This is a difficult transition, as many of you in this room know, because some of you made that transition. But as long as Ukrainians keep faith with this project, we have to keep faith with them. We’ve already shown the strength that comes when we stand united.
Think about it: Russia tried vainly to stop the Ukrainians from having the freest and fairest elections in their history, but they had them. Russia sought to divide Ukraine between east and west, but Ukrainians are more unified as a nation from Lviv to Kharkiv than at any time, I would argue, in the last 25 years, notwithstanding the thugs Russia has supported to foment violence in the Donbas. Russia sought to keep secret its little green men and the multiple tanks that we’ve given them—that they’ve given them. But we have given all you incontrovertible proof that they exist. You’ve seen the pictures, as they say.
But we’ve also exposed what they’re doing to the entire world. All of this because Russia sought to block Ukraine’s Association Agreement with the European Union. That agreement—locking in Ukraine’s European future—was nonetheless signed and ratified by many of you in this room.
And Russia needs to understand that as long as it continues its current course, the United States, and, God willing, all of Europe, and the international community will continue to impose costs on their violation of basic international norms.”
Putin hat Frieden versprochen, aber Waffen geliefert; die Ukraine hat das Recht, sich zu verteidigen
“Chancellor Merkel and President Hollande have just traveled to Kyiv and then to Moscow to pursue a diplomatic resolution to this conflict. The President and I, we agree, we must spare no effort to save lives and resolve the conflict peacefully. As Chancellor Merkel said today, it’s worth the attempt. It’s very much worth the attempt.
But we must judge the existing agreement—Minsk—or any future agreement with Russia by the actions Russia takes on the ground, not by the paper they sign. And given Russia’s recent history, we need to judge it by its deeds, not its words. Don’t tell us. Show us, President Putin.
Too many times President Putin has promised peace, and delivered tanks, troops, and weapons. So we will continue to provide Ukraine with security assistance, not to encourage war but to allow Ukraine to defend itself.
Let me be clear: We do not believe there is a military solution in Ukraine. But let me be equally clear: We do not believe Russia has the right to do what they’re doing. We believe we should attempt an honorable peace. But we also believe the Ukrainian people have a right to defend themselves.”
Minsker Abkommen ist ein Weg zur friedlichen Lösung; Putin stoppt die von ihm kontrollierten Separatisten jedoch nicht
“The essential elements of the Minsk Agreement hold a path to peaceful resolution. I don’t know how many hours, scores of hours I’ve spent with President Poroshenko in Kyiv or on the telephone. He has made some fairly courageous decisions that do not still well with all parts of his constituency. He is viewed by some as having given too much. But Minsk has the major pieces: One, full withdrawal of Russian troops from Ukraine; two, return control over the international border to Ukraine; three, develop a robust international monitoring mission on the Ukrainian-Russian border.
Let’s not kid ourselves. It’s fully within the power of Moscow to stop the separatists from pursuing the military solution. Don’t believe anybody who tells you that that’s not true. I assure it is true. Does it mean there will be some separatists who on their own will move off? Probably. But the core, the leadership, the trained fighters, they are directly answerable to Mr. Putin.”
Ziel der USA ist territoriale Integrität der Ukraine, nicht Zusammenbruch der russischen Wirtschaft
“And let me state clearly what is our collective objective, or at least what I believe is our objective and should be our collective objectives: to preserve the territorial integrity of Ukraine; to reassert the principle that the borders are inviolate and nations have the right to choose their own alliances.
And let me state as clearly as I can what is not our objective. It is not the objective of the United States—I repeat—it is not the objective of the United States of America to collapse or weaken the Russian economy. That is not our objective.
But President Putin has to make a simple, stark choice: Get out of Ukraine or face continued isolation and growing economic costs at home.”
Bekämpfung der Korruption bedeutet auch Selbstverteidigung, wenn Putin sie als Druckmittel im Ausland instrumentalisiert
(…) “But as President Putin and others engage in the use of corruption as a tool of coercion abroad, then fighting corruption is not just about good governance, it’s self-defense. It’s about sovereignty. Fighting corruption may not be easy, but it’s not a mystery how you go about doing it. It’s hard, but not a mystery—transparency, disclosure, independent agencies, vetting police departments and judges, inspector generals in government agencies with the mandate and the freedom to investigate abuses.
Ukraine has taken bold steps toward a new Anti-Corruption Bureau, and it’s passed legislation to reform the Prosecutor General’s office. It has to be implemented now. But it’s a promising start, still more needs to do done. And I’m sure the Prime Minister and the President are tired of hearing me remind them of that a couple times a week.”
Energieabhängigkeit als Druckmittel unzulässig
(…) “We also need to ensure that no country—not Russia or any other nation—can use energy as a weapon of coercion to bully or change the policy of another nation. We’ve known for a long time—you’ve known for a long time—that dependence on a single source of energy is a big problem, a big problem. And now is the time to act.
Europe has made steady progress already. For example, you passed laws with the goal of creating an integrated European energy market. Now is the time to implement those reforms and push for more diversity in fuel types, sources, transit routes; and more investment in the types of infrastructure—interconnections, storage facilities, LNG terminals—that will unleash market forces. We the United States want to be as helpful as we possibly can. It’s overwhelmingly in our interest that Europe not be dependent.
But it’s within your power to make energy security the next chapter in the European project of integration and market expansion that began decades ago—and maybe I’m the only one old enough to remember—with the European Coal and Steel Community. That’s a frightening prospect to think of that.
And if we can finally get it right, there would be—it would be an enormous contribution to the security and independence of Europe.”